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Terraforming Mohole

One of the problems facing the terraforming scientists is that Mars is much colder than Earth. One reason is because of the lack of the "greenhouse effect" caused by the absence of a thick atmosphere. The other reason is Mars' distance from the sun. One of the ways to increase the temperature of the surface is to release some of the heat from under Mars' crust. To do this, moholes are being dug by robotic miners.

The moholes, like the one pictured here, go anywhere from 10 to 20 kilometers deep and the temperatures at the bottom are a modest 300 degrees Kelvin (27 centigrade). However, this is in contrast to the surface temperatures of 100 to 200 degrees Kelvin (-173 to -73 centigrade). The heat released causes the whirlwind seen here. There are about 30 such moholes on Mars now, and they have raised the temperature of the surface about 40 degrees Kelvin.


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